ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Commun Sci Disord. 2017;22(4): 690-704.
Published online December 31, 2017.
doi: https://doi.org/10.12963/csd.17432
Predicting Word Reading and Spelling in First Graders with Dyslexia
Minwha Yang, Bobae Kim, and Jongmin Ra
Department of Education, Kookmin University, Seoul, Korea
Corresponding Author: Bobae Kim ,Tel: +82-2-943-0790, Fax: +82-2-910-4419, Email: kimbobae@kookmin.ac.kr
Received October 2, 2017  Revised: November 23, 2017   Accepted December 7, 2017
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ABSTRACT
Objectives
This study investigated predictors of word reading and spelling in first grade children with dyslexia.
Methods
Twenty-four first graders with dyslexia participated in the study. In order to measure the children’s reading and spelling abilities, a word decoding test, word recognition test, and spelling test were conducted. Other early literacy skills, including letter knowledge, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, orthographic awareness, rapid naming, working memory, and vocabulary were measured as predictors of reading and spelling abilities. Multiple regression and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) analyses were performed to explore predictors of the children’s word reading and spelling abilities.
Results
The results of the regression analyses showed that the children’s rapid naming score was the only significant predictor of decoding skill. For word recognition, letter knowledge was the only significant predictor among early literacy skills. Letter knowledge was also the only significant predictor of spelling ability as well. Because letter knowledge was found to be an important predictor of young dyslexic children’s reading and spelling abilities, post-hoc analyses was performed. From the post-hoc analyses, it was revealed that letter name knowledge was an important contributor to word recognition skill, and that letter sound knowledge was an important contributor to spelling skill.
Conclusion
The results of this study suggest that letter knowledge is a critical element for reading and spelling development in young children with dyslexia. In particular, letter names need to be taught explicitly to student who experience difficulty in reading words, and letter sounds need to be taught explicitly to students who have difficulty in spelling.
Keywords: Decoding | Word recognition | Spelling | Linguistic awareness | Dyslexia
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